Monday, February 6, 2023

Female Incontinence: Cause, risk, and Symptoms.

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According to the National Association for Continence, more than 33 million Americans have some kind of bladder problem or incontinence. Men and women of various ages can have it, though the likelihood rises with age.

Incontinence comes in three different fundamental types:

Leakage is brought on by physical stress, such as sneezing, coughing, or engaging in physical activity that exerts strain on the bladder.

  1. Urge incontinence: An urgent need to urinate brought on by an involuntary bladder contraction that pushes urine out.
  2. Overflow incontinence: Pee eventually seeps out when the bladder does not empty completely. This frequently occurs when an enlarged prostate blocks the urethra.

Cause:

 Urinary incontinence is brought on by weak bladder or pelvic floor muscles and issues with the nerves that control urine. Generally speaking, it happens when the muscle (sphincter) that keeps the bladder’s outlet closed is unable to effectively contain the pee. The sphincter may be too weak, the bladder muscles may contract too forcefully, or the bladder may be too full for this to occur.

Factors of risk:

Incontinence can be exacerbated by smoking, previous pregnancies, obesity, diabetes, bladder illness, specific drugs, or constipation. Incontinence can also be caused by congenital issues or neurological conditions including Parkinson’s disease, multiple sclerosis, a spinal cord injury, or stroke.

Symptoms of incontinence:

  1. Accidental pee leakage is the main sign of incontinence.
  2. Urine leaks when you cough, laugh, exercise, or make rapid movements due to stress incontinence.
  3. Urge incontinence: A sudden, even minor, urge to urinate. Patients struggle to use the restroom on time and frequently urinate.
  4. Overflow incontinence is the inability to urinate despite a persistent need to do so.

Proper diagnosis of the disease:

It is beneficial if the patient keeps a diary for a few days prior to the appointment to note times of urination, the volume of urine produced, leaks, and the foods and beverages ingested. A urologist will conduct a thorough history and physical exam. The doctor might also run one or more of the following tests:

  1. Stress test: The patient unwinds and coughs vigorously while the doctor keeps an eye out for urine loss.
  2. The volume of pee remaining in the bladder after urination is known as postvoid residual volume.
  3. An analysis of the urine’s chemical makeup is known as a urine test.
  4. An ultrasound of the kidneys, urethra, and bladder is used in a bladder scan to determine whether the bladder completely empties.
  5. Cystoscopy: To see any abnormalities in the urethra or bladder, a thin tube with a tiny camera is placed into the urethra.
  6. Urodynamics: A method for gauging bladder pressure and urine flow.
  7. The patient should keep a diary for a few days prior to the procedure to note when they urinate, how much they produce, whether they leak, and what they eat and drink.

Treatment:

Changes in lifestyle, such as dietary adjustments and Kegel exercises, can aid in managing stress and urge incontinence. Additionally, the doctor might suggest one of the following therapies:

  1. Medication: Neurotransmitter-blocking anticholinergics can help prevent the muscle surrounding the bladder from contracting without conscious control. Estrogens, antidepressants, and alpha-adrenergic (nerve-stimulating) medicines are examples of additional pharmaceuticals.
  2. To strengthen or improve the function of the urethral sphincter and compress the urethra close to the bladder outlet, injection treatment involves injecting collagen, body fat, or synthetic chemicals around the urethra.
  3. The posterior tibial nerve is periodically stimulated (around the ankle) as part of the routine, outpatient therapy known as posterior tibial nerve stimulation (PTNS).
  4. Botox injection: The doctor administers a little amount of Botox directly into the bladder muscle, numbing it to some extent to lessen overactivity but still allowing the patient to freely empty their bladder.

Final Word:

This disease can be a really embarrising rather not as severe a others. This is call for you visiting the best urologist in Ludhiana

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